Filtration is the process of purifying the contaminated or raw form of resources extracted from the earth’s surface or beneath the crust. It usually involves the removal of suspended solid particles from liquid or gaseous forms. The mediums used for filtering liquid or gas are known as filters. They help in separating the impurities that may be in the form of liquid, solid particles or gaseous form.
There are different types of filtration methods used for various industrial processes. In this post, we have listed the five main types of industrial filtration.
#1. Centrifugal Filtration
This type of filtration works by rotational movement of the substance that needs to be filtered. There are no separate mediums used for filtration. When the equipment rotates at a defined speed, the high-density liquid or solid separates from the low-density fluid. This process of filtration works best for both liquid and semi-liquid fluid.
#2. Gravity Filtration
In this method, the suspended solid particles are separated from the liquid applications by flowing them from a top surface to lower level under atmospheric pressure.
#3. Vacuum Filtration
Removal of the suspended dust particles from the atmospheric air through suction or at static pressure level, the filtration method is known as Vacuum Filtration.
#4. Hot Filtration
This method is used to remove the small particles from the crystalline compounds. The crystalline compound is dissolved in a solvent under favorable temperature to remove impurities from the liquid compound and then it is cooled down slowly to get re-crystallized compounds. You may filter the solution to remove the purified solid compounds through a process known as Hot Filtration.
#5. Cold Filtration
In this filtration method, you are required to maintain a lower temperature, which may be negative. This method is used to remove proteins, fatty acids, or esters which may be formed or mixed in the fluid. When the fluid is passed through a filter medium, the chilled suspended particles are removed. This method is particularly useful in avoiding sediments at the final stage of filtration.
Industrial filtration is a process used in different industries such as oil and gas, water treatment, automobile and chemical industries to name a few. Different types of filtration solutions are needed to separate the suspended solid and liquid particles from oil and gas or chemicals. Strainers are used to remove the large solid particles, separators are used to remove liquid from natural gas, and coalescers are used to filter the treated form of natural gas. There is a wide range of filtration solutions available to meet the diverse needs of industrial filtration.
There are a few things that need to be taken care of prior the filtration process, and these included the suspended solid particles in the application, fluid viscosity, density of fluid, chemicals compatibility, required filtration rating and operating parameters.